(Makr Nafsi). The deception of the ego. This deception is one of the greatest of barriers on the Path to Perfection. The downward-pulling tendencies of the lower-self (nafs) ceaselessly endeavour to exercise their power over the slave. The self is man's greatest enemy. It is a venomous snake and a cunning and treacherous adversary which will stoop to lying, deception, cajolery and flattery to coax the slave away from his Lord.