The Language of the Future
by Murshid F.A. Ali ElSenossi
(Idtirar). Compulsion (as opposed to free choice). The angels are servants of Allah, but only by compulsion. Man is a servant of Allah by compulsion (idtirar) through his obligatory works and he is a servant by free choice (ikhtiyar) through his supererogatory works.
(Ikhtiyar). Free choice or spontaneity (as opposed to compulsion). The angels are servants of Allah only by compulsion. They have no choice. Man is a servant of Allah by compulsion through his obligatory works and he is a servant of Allah by free choice through his supererogatory works. And he has been given the free choice as to which Path of Return he takes to his Origin. The 'Arif, the knower of Allah, is the one who knows the present moment and therefore knows that Allah IS the moment. Allah gives to such a knower free choice and spontaneous (ikhtiyar) knowledge in each instant and in each breath. This slave, knower and lover takes his knowledge directly from al Hayy, the Living. He drinks from the Water of Life which is ever fresh and ever renewed.
(Qurb al fara'id) is the second lowest of the four stations of Perfection. The slave who performs the obligatory works attains this proximity. While retaining his own properties his reality is annihilated in Allah. Allah manifests Himself with His Name, the Outward, so that the lover remains hidden within Allah. The subject and agent is Allah and the lover's hidden presence is manifested by his becoming Allah's faculties. The lover becomes the Beloved's sight, hearing . . .
(Qurb an-nawafil) is the lowest of the four stations of Perfection. The slave who performs the supererogatory works attains this proximity. While retaining his own reality he is completely dominated by Allah's Oneness and becomes qualified by His Attributes. Allah manifests Himself with His Name, the Inward, so that He remains hidden within the lover. The agent and subject is the lover and Allah's Presence within him is manifested by Allah becoming the lover's faculties. The Beloved becomes the lover's sight, voice etc.
('Abd). The slave (and worshipper) is the one who is in a state of total and utter submission to the Will of Allah. After having been annihilated in Allah where all duality vanished and distinctions were erased, he returns to creation with perfect courtesy and with the Truth of Certainty that 'the Lord is the Lord and the slave is the slave'. When 'abd is translated as 'servant' it carries the implication that the servant can leave the service of his Master, if he so desires. However, the 'slave' is in total bondage, being utterly dependent upon his Master. All buying and selling transactions have been terminated. The slave belongs to Allah, completely, perfectly and unconditionally.
(Nawafil al Khayrat). Through the Infinite Grace of Allah the sincere practising of the nawafil al khayrat may result in the spiritual perfection in which the slave's hearing, sight, speech etc. are negated. He then hears, sees and speaks through Allah. This is the Nearness of supererogatory works.