(Huruf). The letters (of the alphabet). The term 'Ilm al Huruf (Science of the letters) is given to a complex science and symbolism which is based on the letters of the Arabic alphabet. 'The science of letters plays an important role in many of the litanies of the various Islamic Spiritual Paths. The repetition of certain combinations of the letters may be used as vehicles to take the murid to higher levels of awareness. Just as the vocalised letters of the alphabet issue from the breath of the human breather so the existent things within the cosmos issue from the Breath of the All Merciful (Nafas ar Rahman). Through the Breath of the All Merciful, Allah emerged from His Essence and the cosmos was made visible through the letters spoken upon this Divine Breath. The place of articulation of the letters within the human breather corresponds to the preparedness of the immutable or fixed entities.