(Bu'd). Distance from Allah. There can be two aspects to bu'd. One is the distance which comes about through forgetfulness of, or even disbelief in, Allah. Such a distance is Hell in this life and in the Hereafter. The other distance is in fact a profoundly sweet distance. It occurs when the slave truly knows, through unveiling, that 'the slave remains the slave and the Lord remains the Lord'. Such a distance as this is one of the means by which the slave attains nearness to Allah. And nearness to Allah is Paradise here and now.
(Jam' u tafriqa). Jam' is collectedness and tafriqa is separation. Tafriqa is a state when the mystic becomes conscious of himself as an individual and returns to himself after the ecstasy of intoxication with the Beloved. The highest degree of knowledge (Ma'rifa) is the combining of union (Jam') with separation (Tafriqa). Gatheredness in separation is the very truth.
(Farq). Diversity or separation or dispersion. Farq is the differentiation of the slave from his Lord on the downward arc of the Journey. This separation occurs after the slave has been annihilated in Allah and when he is returned to the creation.